Wednesday, December 9, 2009

Study: Trauma affects brain function in kids

Psychological trauma leaves a trail of damage in a child's brain, say scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital. Their new study gives the first direct evidence that children with symptoms of post-traumatic stress suffer poor function of the hippocampus, a brain structure that stores and retrieves memories. The research helps explain why traumatized children behave as they do and could improve treatments for these kids.

Read more.

PTSD creates chemical changes in the brain

Two new studies are examining the chemical changes that occur in the brains of people with PTSD.

The first study, which examined 90 vets from Iraq and Afghanistan, found that those with higher levels of PTSD also had higher levels of neurosteroids in their brains.

The second study "found that veterans diagnosed with PTSD along with another syndrome, such as depression, alcohol abuse, substance abuse or suicidal ideation, had different brain images on a CT scan than did those who had been diagnosed only with PTSD."

The findings could have implications for treating PTSD by addressing it as a neurological issue rather than simply as a psychological one.

The Air Force Times has more.

Monday, December 7, 2009

Holidays Extra Stressful for Soliders With PTSD

Let's be frank, the holidays can really suck for people with PTSD. This article has a few tips, which are less for people with PTSD themselves than the people in their families. Give it a look.

Effects of trauma-focused psychotherapy upon war refugees

A new study to be published in the Journal of Trauma Stress looks at war refugees and possible ways to treat them. Here's the abstract, ahead of the paper's publication:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a trauma-focused psychotherapy upon war refugees from Bosnia. Seventy refugees who met the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and somatoform disorders were included. The first 35 refugees were offered psychotherapy and the following 35 refugees received usual care. Outcome variables were changes in self-reported PTSD symptoms, psychological symptoms, and health status. At 12-month follow-up, participants in the intervention group reported significantly lower scores on the PTSD scale and the measure of psychological symptoms than the comparison group participants. Our results suggest that psychotherapy reduces symptoms of PTSD and somatoform disorders among war refugees even in the presence of insecure residence status.

"Waves of PTSD in Sri Lanka" since 1948 independence

Sri Lanka isn't exactly a model of political stability or even geographic safety. Natural and man-made disasters have wreaked havoc on the mental health of the Sri Lankan population, according to a report in the Sri Lanka Guardian.

"After the independence in 1948, Sri Lanka experienced a series of man made and natural disasters that affected the mental health of the population. These disasters had caused waves of PTSD in Sri Lanka. Most of the posttraumatic reactions were not identified or not diagnosed and sufferers lived with the symptoms for a long time sometimes in their entire life span."

This is the first major study of PTSD in Sri Lanka, following more than 30 years of political strife. The findings are shocking:

"Based on our rough estimations 8% - 12 % of combatants are severely affected by combat stress and many of them are not under any type of treatment. According to the survey (done by Dr Neil Fernando / Dr Ruwan M Jayatunge) of psychosocial and mental health problems among the 824 combatants who were referred to the Psychiatric Unit Military Hospital Colombo from August 2002 to March 2005 found a prevalence of conditions like PTSD (6.8%) depression (15.6%) alcohol abuse (3.5%), Somatoform Disorders (7.89%) and psychiatric illnesses such as Schizophrenia Acute Transient Psychotic Disorders etc (9.4%)."

Read more here.

Study: Israeli Journalists Suffer from High PTSD Level

"A new study by Ben Gurion University shows that 52% of Israeli journalists who have covered terrorist attacks suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, to the extent that they need therapy. The figure for journalists is 5.5 times higher than it is for the general population, where post-traumatic stress affects 9.4% of the population."

I can't say as this surprises me, but the numbers are still shocking. I've met combat photographers who were permanently traumatized by their experiences. And many war correspondents find themselves in close proximity to combat or directly in danger.

Scary stuff.

Friday, December 4, 2009

Dogs help soldiers make gains against PTSD

The Columbia County News-Times has a great story about how dogs are being used by one therapist to "break the ice" and "build bonds of trust."

Postive psychology vs. PTSD

The Huffington Post has a great new article about (against) the military's introduction of something called Postive Psychology to treat PTSD.

"Positive Psychology," according to author Belleruth Naparstek, "focuses on things like authenticity, productivity, creativity, altruism, gratitude and connection with community, instead of targeting symptoms and pathology." Which all seems well and good, until Naparstek points out that these techniques are unlikely to help someone suffering from trauma.

Give the rest a read here. This could be important information for anyone seeking to define the structure of their own therapy.

Accupuncture as possible PTSD treatment

A recent pilot study found that "acupuncture provided treatment effects similar to group cognitive-behavioral therapy."

This seems like pretty early research, and obviously, results may vary. But it seemed worth reporting.

Saturday, November 28, 2009

PTSD Awareness Event Coming to Second Life December 19

24-hour International Event to Showcase Benefits of Virtual Environments for PTSD Survivors

Fearless Nation, the online community for people suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), will host a massive online event in Second Life (SL), the online virtual environment, to bring awareness to the needs of PTSD survivors and their families. The "Be Fearless" event will run for 24 hours beginning at midnight PST (UTC -8) on December 19, 2009 and run through midnight PST on December 20.

The event will include an open house of the Fearless Nation Second Life community, information and resources about PTSD, and an art show entitled "From the Abyss," allowing visitors to see the world through the eyes of a PTSD survivor. It will also include 24 hours of music and dancing spearheaded by DJ Britsurfer Bauer. Gifts, prizes and SL land giveaways donated by SL residents will also be offered to attendees.

"The 'Be Fearless' event is an opportunity to raise awareness about PTSD and to dispel the stigmas associated with this disorder," says Colleen Crary, founder of Fearless Nation. "We live in a world where it is estimated that 14 percent of the population may have some form of PTSD, yet it remains a highly misunderstood condition."

PTSD can result when one has experienced actual or threatened death or serious injury; threat to one's physical integrity; witnessing an event that involves death, injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of another person; learning about unexpected or violent death, serious harm, or threat of death or injury experienced by a family member or other close associate. Characteristic symptoms include persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic event; persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma; numbing of general responsiveness; and persistent symptoms of increased anxiety.

Fearless Nation is an international multicultural community of PTSD and trauma survivors, offering support, education and understanding of PTSD. The group welcomes PTSD sufferers, their families, friends, and clinicians, war veterans, law enforcement personnel, emergency response workers, torture and crime victims, man-made and natural disaster survivors, and survivors of all traumas.

Fearless Nation uses immersion in the Second Life Virtual Reality Environment (VRE) to give traumatized individuals experiences in social interaction and avatar activities that promote trust, skill mastery, and health through:
  • Creation of a flexible "physical" presence (the avatar)
  • Control over environment (can build, create own space, choose interactions)
  • Education about PTSD (knowledge is power)
  • Trying activities that diminish fear and anxiety such as:
    • Talking openly in a safe space about traumatic experiences
    • Progressive muscle relaxation (avatar yoga, movement, dance)
    • Performance (music, singing, speaking, poetry, storytelling, dance, showing art, speech-making, etc.)
    • Creative expression (music, art, poetry, clothing, etc.)
  • Social interaction with others (rebuilding social skills)
  • Supporting other PTSDers (getting outside one's own trauma)
  • Receiving support from other PTSDers (accepting help and rebuilding social skills)
  • Advocating for PTSD awareness and treatment (giving back)
  • Trying new ways to approach problems (re-conceive the perception of traumatic experiences)
"I see the virtual environment of Second Life to be of great value to PTSD sufferers and their families," says Crary. "Research has shown that virtual reality environments can help people with PTSD to re-train their brains toward healing and recovery through shared experiences. SL provides the perfect environment for this approach, and despite the heavy hardware required, is low-cost and accessible to those seeking help. It provides privacy and anonymity for those seeking community."

If you are not already a "resident" of SL, you can get a free account and avatar at Once you have an account, you may attend or participate in the "Be Fearless" event by visiting the SL events page for December 19 or going the Second Life url, You can also find the Fearless Nation community by searching in SL for "PTSD" or by visiting the Fearless Nation website at

Friday, November 27, 2009

PTSD and the stigma of the workplace

"There is a stigma attached to the invisible wounds, and it's largely borne out of ignorance," said David Autry, a spokesman for Disabled American Veterans. "There's a fear that somebody will go off the deep end."

This is just one of the interesting elements in the AP's recent article about vets with "invisible wounds" returning to the workforce. Give it a read to learn about the challenges many people with PTSD face when seeking jobs, as well as once they are employed, and how the Army's Wounded Warrior Program and forward-thinking companies like Northrop Grumman are helping some vets with PTSD.

Study: Marijuana may help ease PTSD symptoms

According to a study published in the Journal of Neuroscience, "marijuana may help patients overcome life stresses that worsen reawakened trauma and other symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder."

The study didn't use actual marijuana, but an artificial, synthetic drug, which was given to rats to see how quickly they could adjust to stress after experiencing an initial trauma.

Hardly conclusive, but worth noting.

Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Study claims PTSD is being over-diagnosed

The Canadian Press reports: "A new study suggests post-traumatic stress disorder is being over-diagnosed in Canada and the western world — a potentially costly situation that could lead to skyrocketing disability claims."

Interesting that, even for a country with socialized medicine, the lead here takes an insurance point of view.

But like many discussions of PTSD, this ignores many facets of the problem. 1) Not only soldiers experience PTSD. 2) PTSD was severely under-diagnosed for decades.


PTSD: The growing plague

The more tours soldiers do, the greater their chances of suffering PTSD:

...troops on their second or third trip to the combat zone, have more stress related mental problems. While 14 percent of troops on their first combat tour have stress problems, that goes to 18 percent for those on their second tour, and 31 percent for those on their third.

Read more.

Monday, November 9, 2009

Journaling: "Your notebook doesn't pass judgement"

Would keeping a journal of your experiences help you to learn to deal with your PTSD? That's the goal of the Veterans Writers Group started by Fred Tomasello at the Buffalo VA Hospital.

Fred told WGRZ: "The notebook is there, you can write what you want it doesn't pass any judgement on you, you can say what you want and it's always there whenever you want to go back and look at it again."

In this case, the journal doesn't work by itself. The Writers Group is also a support group where vets can talk about what they wrote and what they experienced.

Read more about it here.

Easing nighmares could help ease PTSD symptoms

Are you plagued by nightmares? Do they haunt your daytime hours as well as your evenings?

A technique called imagery rehearsal therapy (IRT) has been shown to help some people who suffer from PTSD. According to a recent article in USA Today, IRT is "a form of cognitive behavioral therapy, which focuses on changing harmful thought patterns."

Basically, IRT teaches you to examine your recurring nightmares, then "rewrite the scripts" so that you are in more control of your dreams.

I actually did something very similar just this past week, without knowing it, to deal with the recent death of my father. Every night before I go to sleep, I try to set the intention for my dreams. My nightmares have dramatically receded, and I feel like my dreams are instructing me, rather than terrifying me.

Give the article a read and talk about this with your therapist. It could be worth a try.

Should PTSD be a badge of honor?

Jack Estes, co-founder of the Fallen Warriors Foundation, tells a heartbreaking story of a Viet Nam vet who waited more than 24 years for the military to treat him as if he has PTSD.

Estes ends his article with a personal note: "Like Bobby, I too have PTSD. Quietly, though, afraid of the stigma. I've been to therapy for years and take medication to keep me steady. I'm better most days. And like many veterans, I hope someday people will look at PTSD as a badge of honor."

So how do you feel about this? Should PTSD be a badge of honor? It definitely shouldn't be considered shameful. Maybe treating it honorably will get more soldiers the treatment they need.

Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Dogs to help treat PTSD?

The U.S. military is reportedly investing millions of dollars to see how dogs can be used to help "soothe the volatile emotions of a soldier haunted by post-traumatic stress disorder," according to a report from the Chicago Tribune.

Air Force experiments with Virtual Reality to treat PTSD

Eight Air Force locations are trying virtual reality as a method to help ease PTSD symptoms. According to the Air Force, "The virtual reality exposure is part of the new PTSD Clinic here that opened in August. The technology will compliment the clinic's evidence-based treatment programs to provide the maximum quality of care for returning service members."

Read more about it here.

Army Gives Bad Discharges to Thousands of PTSD Vets

Here's how the Army has, for the last few years, managed to discharge vets who have PTSD and not have to treat them:

1. People with PTSD tend to drink a lot to numb the pain.
2. Soldiers who are ordered to drink less but fail are then discharged for failure to follow orders.

Read more at The Salem News.

Iraq Troops' PTSD Rate As High As 35 Percent, Analysis Finds

The Veterans’ Administration should expect a high volume of Iraq veterans seeking treatment of post traumatic stress disorder, with researchers anticipating that the rate among armed forces will be as high as 35%, according to the Management Insights feature in the current issue of Management Science, the flagship journal of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS®).

Science Daily has more.

Tuesday, September 1, 2009

Accupuncture as treatment for PTSD

A unique program at Camp Lejeune called the Wounded Warriors Battalion brings helps vets with PTSD and traumatic brain injuries through acupuncture, all at no cost to the veterans or the Marines. Soldiers interviewed in this article say the treatments help them to deal with stress, anger, and memory issues.

Oklahoma college offers help for veterans

You don't need to live in Oklahoma to learn some good facts about PTSD from this article.

UK PTSD claims up 100-fold following service in Afghanistan

A report in The Independent details the "hidden costs" of military conflicts:

The number of soldiers applying to the AFCS for financial assistance after being medically discharged rose from 200 in 2005-06, when the scheme opened, to 845 last year. Troops claiming for injuries suffered in service rose from 240 to 3,255 during the same period.

The disclosures follow revelations last week that service chiefs expect the number wounded in Afghanistan to have doubled by the end of the year. The total to the end of July was 299 – compared to 245 in the whole of 2008.

The figures also show that the numbers of "post-service" claims has risen by a factor of almost 100, from 15 to 1,455 since 2005. A Ministry of Defence spokesman admitted the heavy toll is due to the number of people experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after leaving the services.

Read more.

Viagra to treat PTSD?

A lot of PTSD sufferers experience a lack of sexual desire or other sexual side effects. A research team at Iran's Shahid Beheshti University decided to look into Viagra as a treatment not just for ED, but also for PTSD. The result: no more effective than a placebo.

Read more.

Saturday, August 29, 2009

Compassion Fatigue -- Similar to PTSD looks at the growing condition of "compassion fatigue" -- something experienced by many nurses, but also by people caring for loved ones.

Unlike burnout, which is caused by everyday work stresses (dealing with insurance companies, making treatment choices), compassion fatigue results from taking on the emotional burden of a patient's agony.

In a way, it's similar to post-traumatic stress disorder, except that the stress is a reaction to the trauma of another. As with PTSD, symptoms include irritability, disturbed sleep, outbursts of anger, intrusive thoughts, and a desire to avoid anything having to do with the patient's struggle.

Read more here.

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Local War Vet Hosts Horse Therapy Clinic for Soldiers with PTSD

Florida's WCTV has the story, with video!

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Primary Suicide Risk Factor for Veterans

Don't let this be you, okay?

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Primary Suicide Risk Factor for Veterans

Veterans unwilling to take part in treatment programs

From The Boston Globe:

Researchers testing ways to treat the psychological wounds of war among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans are encountering a serious roadblock: a shortage of willing study participants.

VA prepares to ease rules for PTSD claims

From The Air Force Times:

The Department of Veterans Affairs is moving closer to simplifying the process for many non-combat veterans filing claims for service-connected post-traumatic stress disorder.

Under a proposed change published in the Aug. 24 Federal Register, VA would eliminate a requirement that a veteran must provide evidence documenting that he witnessed or experienced a traumatic event.

Friday, August 21, 2009

Report: Women more likely to suffer from post traumatic stress

Dr. Carol S. North, a Texas psychiatrist and leading researcher on the mental health impact of disasters, said women also are more likely to suffer longer from the anxiety disorder, which can develop after an ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened.

"In the general population, (PTSD) is twice as common in women as men," she said. "Why, we don't know."

The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette has more.

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

"Emotional resistance traininig" to prevent PTSD (before it happens)

A $117 million program aims to "transform" military culture and teach soldiers how to deal with stressful emotional situations before they happen.

What say you? Is this helpful? Can the military really be transformed? How does this help soldiers who do not receive this during basic training?

Saturday, August 15, 2009

Spiritual needs that address PTSD

Can religion help support people with PTSD? That's the idea behind groups like Campus Crusade for Christ's Military Ministry and the Coming Home Collaborative.

USA Today has the story.

Bipolar disorder misdiagnosed - often really PTSD

In a 2008 study, 57% of 145 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder were found to have been misdiagnosed.

A new study looked closer at those 82 misdiagnosed adults, and found that at least a quarter of them suffered from PTSD.

Reuters Health has the story.

Imagery Rescripting and Reprocessing Therapy

From Idaho's News 8:

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a thing of the past for a select group of people in Idaho Falls.

Their success in overcoming trauma comes thanks to a counseling technique called Imagery Rescripting and Reprocessing Therapy (IRRT).

Bob Stahn of Well Spring Counseling says the therapy has cured all of the approximately 50 patients he has treated for PTSD in the past two years. He says the perfect success rate surprises him.

Too good to be true? Read more about it here.

Medical marijuana for PTSD victims?

An Oregon man is pushing for just that. Read all about it here.

Special issue of Journal of the American Medical Association tackles PTSD

The August 5th, 2009 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association addresses themes of violence, trauma, PTSD, and sexual abuse, all under the heading "Violence and Human Rights."

Check out the table of contents here.

Asthma and PTSD symptoms persist 5-6 years after exposure to World Trade Center attacks

From the August 5th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Sunday, February 8, 2009

Fire Disasters Cause Psychological Distress

Many people will be psychological victims of the fires sweeping through south-eastern Australia as much as physical or economic victims, warns the Australian Psychological Society (APS).

Horses Helping to Treat PTSD

Both humans and horses can suffer traumatic experiences.

But humans and horses can also help each other to deal with the stress of trauma. has the story of one therapist using horses to help treat soldiers with PTSD.

A lesson from the ancient Greeks

More than 2,000 years ago, the ancient Greeks used plays to help soldiers in the audience to deal with the stress of war. Now, the U.S. military is trying the same idea with their new "Real Warriors" program, "a program in which servicemembers can talk about and listen to the stories of those who sought help for psychological injuries or traumatic brain injuries."

Stars and Stripes has more.

Monday, January 26, 2009

Study: Smoking and Alcohol Make PTSD Worse

Clinics should treat both PTSD and addiction at the same time, according to several new studies. And while drinking and smoking might feel good at first, other studies show that they might actually be making PTSD symptoms worse, especially if people don't realize that they have PTSD and are self-medicating. Nicotine in particular stimulates the brain.

The Associated Press has more: "How to Help When Smoking, Alcohol Complicate PTSD"

Friday, January 23, 2009

Experimental PTSD Treatment: Stellate Ganglion Block

Veteran Shane Wheeler will soon become the second vet to try an experimental treatment called stellate ganglion block.

Theoretically, the procedure -- normally used to treat disorders such as hot flashes, Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), Sympathetic Maintained Pain, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, and Herpes Zoster (shingles) -- would calm down the part of the brain that is over-excited because of PTSD.

Of course, this is an unproven, untested treatment, and not everyone believes it would work. Dr. Kurtis Noblett told WLS-TV in Chicago,
"I'm also going to be skeptical about treatments that claim to be a quick fix. PTSD is very complex with a whole host of symptoms and problems and associated difficulties that in my mind needs a broader approach to treatment."

Tuesday, January 20, 2009

A New Name for PTSD?

First it was called "shell shock." Then "battle fatigue." Now it's PTSD -- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

But is this still the wrong name?

Speaking at a meeting of the American Psychoanalytical Association, Dr. Jonathan Shay says we should lose the word "disorder" and just call it "Post-Traumatic Stress" -- or maybe just call it a "Psychological injury."

Shay says that the word "disorder" mis-characterizes the damage of PTSD, and creates a stigma that makes people who have it less likely to seek treatment.

Is this just semantics? Maybe. But words do have power, as Shay discusses here:

Monday, January 19, 2009

60 Years Later: WWII Vet Talks About PTSD

From the Fort Mill Times:

Until now [Don] Frederick has related his World War II experiences to only a close circle of fellow veterans. He's never discussed the experiences in detail with his wife, his three children, or even his brother, another World War II vet. That has changed.

Frederick is now sharing his accounts with people willing to listen to what he has to say including [Dr. Susan Czapiewski, a psychiatrist at the Veterans hospital in Minneapolis and an assistant professor at the University of Minnesota.]. The talking is therapy, Czapiewski said. Talk therapy hinges on the talker making a connection with a listener, she said.

"There's a muscle in our middle ear that focuses, that allows us focus on that human voice and sort of drown out what else is going on in the environment, and so there's this strong very primitive social connection that happens that is very soothing and very calming and very healing," she said.

Friday, January 16, 2009

Eastwood's 'Gran Torino': A Portrait of PTSD

While it doesn't look like Clint Eastwood's new movie, "Gran Torino", actually spells out that his character has PTSD, veterans who saw the film at a recent screening said it was all too obvious.

As , "Clint shows survivor guilt, paranoia, total irascibility, hate of all enemies and even a death wish which are all symptoms of PTSD."

(Be careful reading the full article if you don't want the ending of the movie spoiled for you!)

Wednesday, January 14, 2009

Robber with PTSD Ruled Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity

The San Jose Mercury News reports:

In a potential landmark case for soldiers suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, a Santa Clara County jury Tuesday found a former Army captain diagnosed with PTSD not guilty by reason of insanity for robbing a Mountain View pharmacy of drugs at gunpoint.

The jury's verdict means that West Point graduate Sargent Binkley of Los Altos will be treated for the disorder in a state hospital or as an outpatient rather than face 12 to 23 years behind bars.

Tuesday, January 13, 2009

Study: Mental Health History Increases PTSD Risk

"Low self esteem, negative life events and lack of a support network greatly increase the likelihood of PTSD," according to a new study by the Geisinger Center for Health Research.

The study followed "2,000 adult victims of the World Trade Center disaster" for two years after the event.

Some possible therapeutic methods for treating PTSD could come out of this study: "Consistent with earlier findings, the study suggests that brief psychological interventions immediately following the event can prevent long term mental health issues. Also effective is informal support from families, friends and spiritual communities. Interestingly, extensive psychological therapy appears to delay recovery."

Sunday, January 11, 2009

Two veterans share their stories

"Army veteran speaks about struggle with PTSD, long road to recovery"
Afghanistan vet Rob Kislow got so low, he tried to commit suicide, only to have his gun jam at the last minute. He talked about his experiences with PTSD publicly for the first time last month.
"My battle with post traumatic stress"
Chanice Ward of the UK's Royal Medical Corps also tried to kill herself, twice, but "her bosses would not accept she was suffering from an illness and her complaints fell on deaf ears."

Thursday, January 8, 2009

PTSD plus substance abuse: A lethal combination

From Reuters:

Many troops coming home from the wars binge-drink alcohol, [Dr. Thomas] Kosten said. About 3 percent are hooked on opiate painkillers. And overall, the returning troops smoke cigarettes at levels more than double that of the general population, he said.

Read more.

Tuesday, January 6, 2009

Research: Tetris Possible Treatment for PTSD Flashbacks

Playing computer games that combine visual and spacial analysis -- like Tetris -- can help PTSD sufferers experience fewer flashbacks, according to research from the University of Oxford.

Calling the game-play a “cognitive vaccine,” the researchers write that the game competes with resources the brain would otherwise assign to trauma flashbacks:

“Visuospatial cognitive tasks selectively compete for resources required to generate mental images. Thus, a visuospatial computer game (e.g. “Tetris”) will interfere with flashbacks. Visuospatial tasks post-trauma, performed within the time window for memory consolidation, will reduce subsequent flashbacks. We predicted that playing “Tetris” half an hour after viewing trauma would reduce flashback frequency over 1-week.”

Read the paper here:
Can Playing the Computer Game “Tetris” Reduce the Build-Up of Flashbacks for Trauma? A Proposal from Cognitive Science

PTSD Policemen

Pentagon Rules: No Purple Heart for PTSD

PTSD is not a "qualifying Purple Heart wound," according to the Pentagon. Defense Department spokeswoman Eileen Lainez, who told that "advancements in medical science may support future re-evaluation."